Comfrey Central - A Clearinghouse for Symphytum Information





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General Information about Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs)

PAs in Comfrey

Review of Comfrey and Related Research

Case Reports

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Conclusions

References

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In Vitro Studies


Table 4: In vitro Studies
Test ModelTest SubstanceDoseResultsRef
Ames Test, TA98 Salmonella StrainSymphytine?no mutagenesis[82]*
Ames Test, TA98 Salmonella StrainSymphytine w/ S-9 microsome mix?no mutagenesis[82]*
Ames Test, TA100 Salmonella StrainSymphytine?no mutagenesis[82]*
Ames Test, TA100 Salmonella StrainSymphytine w/ S-9 microsome mix?mutagenic[82]*
Lung Fibroblast (Chinese Hamster V79 cell line)Symphytine?mutagenic[82]*
Cyropreserved hamster embryoninc cells.Symphytine?no mutagenesis[82]*
DrosophilaEchimidine?mutagenic[20]
Ames Test: TA100, TA92, TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and hisG46 Salmonella StrainsLycopsamine +/- S-9 microsome mix0.2 - 2mg/plateno mutagenesis[78]
Ames Test, TA98 Salmonella StrainExtract: S. sp. leaf in acetone0.2 to 1.4g/mltoxic (or anti-mutagenic?)[83]
Ames Test, TA98 Salmonella StrainAs above with S-9 microsome mix0.2 to 1.4g/mlno mutagenesis[83]
Ames Test, TA100 Salmonella StrainExtract: S. sp. leaf in acetone0.2 to 1.4g/mlno mutagenesis[83]
Ames Test, TA100 Salmonella StrainAs above w/ S-9 microsome mix0.2 to 1.4g/mlno mutagenesis[83]
Human lymphocytesSymphytum alkaloid mix1.4 & 14g/mlno mutagenesis[84]
Human lymphocytesSymphytum alkaloid mix140 & 1400g/mlsister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations[84]
Human Chang liver cellsSymphytine/symlandine67g/mlno mutagenesis to p53 gene[64]
Human Chang liver cellsSymphytum Extract67g/mlmutagenesis to p53 gene[64]
Meristematic cells of the lateral roots of Vicia fabaAlkaloid fraction I containing lasiocarpineSee ref.antimitotic and mutagenic[73]
Meristematic cells of the lateral roots of Vicia fabaAlkaloid fraction IISee ref.no mutagenesis[73]
Meristematic cells of the lateral roots of Vicia fabaAlkaloid fraction IIISee ref.antimitotic[73]
Meristematic cells of the lateral roots of Vicia fabaAqueous infusion of S. officinale root1/8 and 1/16 dilutionsantimitotic and mutagenic[73]
*Symposium report, no dose information of statistical significance given in the report.



2004 Dorena Rode       Acknowledgment