Comfrey Central - A Clearinghouse for Symphytum Information


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46. Huxtable, R.J., Herbal teas and toxins: novel aspects of pyrrolizidine poisoning in the United States. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 1980. 24(1): p. 1-14.

47. Mattocks, A.R., The occurrence and analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides. Xenobiotica, 1971. 1(4): p. 451-3.

48. Mattocks, A.R., Hepatotoxic effects due to pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides. Xenobiotica, 1971. 1(4): p. 563-5.

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50. Brauchli, J., et al., Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Symphytum officinale L. and their percutaneous absorption in rats. Experientia, 1982. 38(9): p. 1085-7.

51. Schoental, R. and P. Magee, Chronic liver changes in rats after a single dose of lasiocarpine, a pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloid. Journal of Path. Bact., 1957. 74: p. 305-319.

52. Yan, C.C. and R.J. Huxtable, Effects of monocrotaline, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, on glutathione metabolism in the rat. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1996. 51(3): p. 375-9.

53. Yan, C.C., R.A. Cooper, and R.J. Huxtable, The comparative metabolism of the four pyrrolizidine alkaloids, seneciphylline, retrorsine, monocrotaline, and trichodesmine in the isolated, perfused rat liver. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1995. 133(2): p. 277-84.

54. Yan, C.C. and R.J. Huxtable, Effects of taurine and guanidinoethane sulfonate on toxicity of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1996. 51(3): p. 321-9.

55. Eisenstein, D., J. Azari, and R. Huxtable, Attenuation of the toxicity of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid (monocrotaline) by metabolic inhibition. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, 1979. 22: p. 193-8.

56. Petry, T.W. and I.G. Sipes, Modulation of monocrotaline-induced hepatic genotoxicity in rats. Carcinogenesis, 1987. 8(3): p. 415-9.

57. White, I.N., A.R. Mattocks, and W.H. Butler, The conversion of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid retrorsine to pyrrolic derivatives in vivo and in vitro and its acute toxicity to various animal species. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 1973. 6(4): p. 207-18.

58. Jago, M.V., Factors affecting the chronic hepatotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Journal of Pathology, 1971. 105(1): p. 1-11.

59. Kovach, J.S., et al., Toxicity and pharmacokinetics of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, indicine N-oxide, in humans. Cancer Research, 1979. 39(11): p. 4540-4.

60. Muetterlein, R. and C.-G. Arnold, Investigations concerning the content and the pattern of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Symphytum officalene L. (Comfrey). PZ (Pharmazeutische Zeitung) Wissenschaft, 1993. 138(5-6): p. 119-125.

61. Betz, J.M., et al., Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in commercial comfrey products (Symphytum sp.). Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1994. 83(5): p. 649-53.

62. Chizzola, R., Rapid sample preparation technique for the determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant extracts. Journal of Chromatography A, 1994. 668(2): p. 427-433.

63. Copper, R.A., et al., Preparative separation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by high-speed counter-current chromatography. Journal of Chromatography. a, 1996. 732(1): p. 43-50.

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65. Culvenor, C.C., et al., Structure and toxicity of the alkaloids of Russian comfrey (symphytum x uplandicum Nyman), a medicinal herb and item of human diet. Experientia, 1980. 36(4): p. 377-9.

66. Huxtable, R.J., J. Luthy, and U. Zweifel, [letter]. New England Journal of Medicine, 1986. 315(17): p. 1095.

67. Jaarsma, T.A., et al., Chemotaxonomy of the Symphytum officinale agg. (Boraginaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 1989. 167(3-4): p. 113-128.

68. Mossoba, M.M., et al., Application of gas chromatography/matrix isolation/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey root (Symphytum officinale L.). Journal of AOAC International, 1994. 77(5): p. 1167-1174.

69. Awang, D.V., et al., Echimidine Content of Commercial Comfrey (Symphytum spp. Boranginaceae. Journal of Herbs, Spices, and Medininal Plants, 1993. 2(1): p. 21-35.

70. Furuya, T. and K. Araki, Studies on constituents of crude drugs. I. Alkaloids of Symphytum officinale Linn. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1968. 16(12): p. 2512-6.

71. Kim, N.C., et al., Isolation of symlandine from the roots of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale) using countercurrent chromatography. Journal of Natural Products, 2001. 64(2): p. 251-3.

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74. Mattocks, A.R., Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey [letter]. Lancet, 1980. 2(8204): p. 1136-7.

75. Roitman, J.N., Comfrey and liver damage [letter]. Lancet, 1981. 1(8226): p. 944.

76. Yeong, M.L., et al., The effects of comfrey derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids on rat liver. Pathology, 1991. 23(1): p. 35-8.

77. Ridker, P.M., et al., Hepatic venocclusive disease associated with the consumption of pyrrolizidine-containing dietary supplements. Gastroenterology, 1985. 88(4): p. 1050-4.

78. Yamanaka, H., M. Nagao, and T. Sugimura, Mutagenicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Salmonella/Mammalian-Microsome Test. Mutation Research, 1979. 68: p. 211-216.

79. Reina, M., et al., Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium megalanthum. Journal of Natural Products, 1998. 61(11): p. 1418-20.

80. Wiedenfeld, H. and A. Andrade-Cetto, Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Ageratum houstonianum Mill. Phytochemistry, 2001. 57(8): p. 1269-71.

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83. White, R.D., et al., An evaluation of acetone extracts from six plants in the Ames mutagenicity test. Toxicology Letters, 1983. 15(1): p. 25-31.

84. Behninger, C., et al., [Studies on the effect of an alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale on human lymphocyte cultures]. Planta Medica, 1989. 55(6): p. 518-22.

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86. Smith, L.W. and C.C. Culvenor, Plant source of Hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Journal of Natural Products, 1981. 44(2): p. 129-152.

87. Hills, L.D., Comfrey. 1976, London: Faber and Faber Limited. 253.

88. Moore, M., Herbal Materia Medica. 4th ed. 1994, Albuquerque, NM: Southwest School of Botanical Medicine.

89. Hirono, I., H. Mori, and M. Haga, Carcinogenic activity of Symphytum officinale. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1978. 61(3): p. 865-9.

90. Garrett, B.J., et al., Consumption of poisonous plants (Senecio jacobaea, Symphytum officinale, Pteridium aquilinum, Hypericum perforatum) by rats: chronic toxicity, mineral metabolism, and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Toxicology Letters, 1982. 10(2-3): p. 183-8.

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92. Weston, C.F., et al., Veno-occlusive disease of the liver secondary to ingestion of comfrey. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 1987. 295(6591): p. 183.

93. Senturk, T., et al., Seizures and hepatotoxicity following sulphasalazine administration. Rheumatology International, 1997. 17(2): p. 75-7.

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97. Bach, N., S.N. Thung, and F. Schaffner, Comfrey herb tea-induced hepatic veno-occlusive disease [see comments]. American Journal of Medicine, 1989. 87(1): p. 97-9.

98. Yeong, M.L., et al., Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with comfrey ingestion. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1990. 5(2): p. 211-4.

99. Miskelly, F.G. and L.I. Goodyer, Hepatic and Pulmonary Complications of Herbal Medicines. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 1992. 68(805): p. 935.

100. Anderson, P. and A.E.M. McLean, Comfrey and Liver Damage. Human Toxicology, 1989. 8(1): p. 68-69.

101. Yeong, M.L., S.J. Wakefield, and H.C. Ford, Hepatocyte membrane injury and bleb formation following low dose comfrey toxicity in rats. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 1993. 74(2): p. 211-7.

102. Grobner, M.A., P.R. Cheeke, and N.M. Patton, Effect if feeding comfrey on growth and tissue copper levels of rabbits. J applied rabbit research, 1985. 8(3): p. 136.

103. Cheeke, P.R., Comfrey: an excellent forage or a poisonous plant?. J applied rabbit research, 1979. 2(3): p. 7-11.

2004 Dorena Rode       Acknowledgment